Avoid These Five Stock Option Mistakes for U.S. Citizens Working in Israeli Hi-Tech

Tax filings for us citizens living abroad

Avoid These Five Stock Option Mistakes for U.S. Citizens Working in Israeli Hi-Tech

The intersection of U.S. and Israeli tax laws for American citizens living and working in Israel’s hi-tech sector can be very tricky. While stock options can be a lucrative part of compensation packages, navigating the tax implications in both countries can be daunting. Here are the five most common mistakes people in this situation make. Understanding these pitfalls is crucial for maximizing the financial benefits of stock options and minimizing unexpected tax burdens.

1. Misunderstanding the Timeline for Israeli Tax Benefits under Section 102

A common misconception is the belief that under Section 102 in Israel, the critical timeline for tax benefits is two years from the vesting date. This is false! The actual lockup period is two years from the grant date. This misunderstanding can lead to miscalculating the optimal time to sell shares, potentially affecting the timing of taxes and ending people in hot water. If you are beyond two years from the grant date and the opportunity to sell presents itself, make sure you don’t hold back because of this misconception. Instead, ask your tax advisor if the time is right.

2. 409A on the Exercise Price

A common oversight for U.S. citizens in Israeli hi-tech is neglecting 409A compliance when receiving stock options. This is very common with young, inexperienced new startups and has significant implications for their employees. Additionally, they may often give compliant options to employees but label them with names that aren’t necessarily correct. So, when you get a choice of different grant opportunities, it is essential to speak with an advisor who can tell the choices apart and understand the implications.

The 409A regulation ensures that stock options are priced at their fair market value (FMV) at the time of grant. Israelis without American citizenship can be granted options with an exercise price of $0.01 regardless of the company’s value at the time of grant. This is wonderful and gives them a real potential upswing in their options. However, U.S. citizens who get this benefit will end up with a hefty tax fine!

When the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the U.S. deems stock options as undervalued, it can impose severe penalties and taxes based on the actual FMV. The employee can end up having to pick the income up at vest, which is even before they exercise. Worse, they end up paying a 20% penalty on the difference. Add that to the fact that most of the time, the options are in a company that is still private and that they can’t sell, and you get a result that rarely ends well. People often ask to run the numbers to see if it is still worth it, but 9 out of 10 times, it is not worth it to get options below the 409A value.

3. Misunderstanding U.S. Taxation on Stock Option Exercise

A third critical area where U.S. citizens working in Israeli hi-tech often err is misunderstanding how the U.S. taxes stock options upon exercise, a concept markedly different from Israeli practices. In Israel, under the 102 plan, taxation on stock options is deferred until the sale of the shares. However, in the U.S., the scenario is different: taxation occurs at the point of exercise. When U.S. citizens exercise their stock options, the difference between the exercise price and the fair market value at that time is treated as taxable income, subject to U.S. ordinary tax rates. This immediate taxation can lead to significant financial obligations at the time of exercise, unlike the deferred tax benefit in Israel. Many are caught off-guard by this, facing unexpected tax bills without the immediate liquidity from selling the shares. This occurs most commonly when employees leave a job and have 90 days to decide whether to exercise their shares. For Israeli purposes, you just need to lay out the cash to exercise. For the U.S., though, you may also need to pay the tax amount up front. All while holding shares that may not convert to cash if the company is still private.

If this sounds like you, I’d suggest contacting us or your tax advisor. You can also see some other articles I’ve written that delve into this further.

4. Lack of U.S. Tax Planning for Future Option Exercise

Many fail to strategically plan their U.S. tax returns to account for the income generated upon exercising these options. If you have options, there is so much planning that you can already start to do years in advance. This oversight can result in substantial tax liabilities at a future date and is wasteful. Effective tax planning should include strategies to offset the income from exercising stock options, such as foreign tax credit build-up. Without this foresight, individuals may find themselves in higher tax brackets with significant tax bills, diminishing the financial advantage of their stock options. It’s essential for U.S. expatriates to work with knowledgeable tax professionals who can guide them in integrating their stock options into their broader tax strategy, ensuring they maximize the benefits while minimizing the tax impact when they choose to exercise their options.

5. Missing Early Exercise Opportunities to Reduce Future Taxes

Lastly, a common mistake U.S. citizens make in the Israeli hi-tech sector is not exercising their stock options early when the opportunity arises. Early exercise can be a strategic move to minimize taxes on the future growth of these options. When employees exercise options early, particularly when the stock value is low, they pay taxes on a smaller income base. This early action can lead to significant tax savings, especially if the stock value appreciates substantially over time. However, many overlook this opportunity, waiting until the stock value increases, which results in a higher tax burden on the larger income realized from the stock’s appreciation. This delay can significantly diminish the financial benefits of stock options. Therefore, U.S. expatriates should consider early exercise as part of their overall financial strategy, assessing the potential tax advantages against the risks of investing in the company’s future. It’s a delicate balance of timing and tax implications, one that requires careful consideration and, often, consultation with a tax advisor well-versed in stock options and U.S./Israeli taxation.


As a U.S. citizen working in Israel’s hi-tech sector, stock options are common and offer incredible benefits. However, if you aren’t careful about it and planning for your big exit, you can end up paying unnecessarily. It demands a comprehensive grasp of the U.S. and Israel’s complex taxes. This article has highlighted five critical areas where Americans often stumble, each underscoring the importance of informed decision-making. From the nuances of Section 102’s timelines and 409A compliance to the differing tax treatments upon exercising options and the strategic timing of such exercises, each point sheds light on the potential pitfalls and opportunities that stock options present.


If you want help with your stock options or U.S. tax filings, please contact us.


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